Radiation sterilization of surgical instrnts with a consideration of metal shielding on sterilization efficiency Nicholas Grecz, Ph.D. Richard B. Brannon, Ph.D. George Killgore, Ph.D. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia The feasibility of the use of radiation for sterilization of surgical … also gamma rays kill cancer cells during chemo or radiation therapy. Microwaves are also used for sterilization. Gamma irradiation can be used to preserve foods. Latin America and the Caribbean. Gamma sterilization technology is very well understood, safe and easy to validate. Learn more about our global offering, which includes electron beam, gamma, X-ray, and ethylene oxide technologies. UV light is a disinfection method that inactivates microorganisms by a physical process rather than using harmful chemicals, and thereby, does not produce corrosive materials or disinfection by-products (DBPs). Gamma irradiation offers good penetration of dense products and is ideal for many types of materials and their packaging. Just like with X-rays, gamma radiation can easily penetrate substance. The damaging effects of radiation were not known at the time and therefore no safety measures were taken. In 1896 Henri Becquerel observed radiation emitted from uranium. They may also use beams of gamma rays to kill cancerous tumour cells deep inside the body. To take an extreme example, when radioactive uranium decomposes it releases energy to such an extent that it’s known as an atom bomb explosion (fission). Currently, all industrial radiation processing facilities employ Cobalt-60 as the gamma radiation source. And in 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie discovered several radioactive elements and first used the term “radioactive.” Marie received the Nobel prize twice in two different scientific disciplines even though she suffered from a blood illness attributed to prolong… The unit of absorbed dose is kiloGray, expressed as kGy. In 1964 the Atomic Energy of Canada commissioned the first industrial cobalt-60 sterilization facility to sterilize surgical suture. Some substances are too powerful, uranium and plutonium for example. Complete penetration can be achieved depending on the thickness of the material. (supply, transport, disposal, impossibility to turn radiation off), it is expected that gamma sterilization will gradually be replaced by E-beam and X-ray. The RTC provides high-precision dose delivery for validation, dose mapping, dose audit, and research purposes. The history of sterilization by radiation dates back to 1895 when X-rays were first discovered by W.C. Roentgen. Today, the primary sources of industrial use gamma radiation are cobalt 60 (60 Co) and cesium 137 (137 Cs) which emit gamma rays during their radioactive decay. The gamma irradiation process uses Cobalt 60 radiation for a variety of applications, including sterilization, decontamination and materials modification. She later died from this illness, known as aplastic anemia, at the age of 66. Today, 40–50% of disposable medical products manufactured in developed countries are radiation sterilized and there are over 200 gamma irradiators worldwide in operation for a variety of purposes. The radioisotope Colbalt-60 is used as the source for gamma rays. Therefore, it’s a suitable sterilization method for heat sensitive items. Not exactly the desired outcome. Gamma rays can be used to sterilise both surgical instruments and food at room temperature. Gamma Radiation Sterilization. In other words, radiation can be used to sterilize medical and scientific equipment. As part of our complete radiation validation program, we will develop a protocol, assemble all testing and validation data, summarize results and make recommendations based on your product, as well as provide on-going support through a dedicated Radiation TechTeam Project Manager. Radiation-sterilisation is a low temperature process, which can be applied when the more commonly used heat sterilisation would cause unacceptable damage to products. In other words, radiation damages the hard drive of a bacterium, causing it to shut down for good.Â. Avoid folds, coils, curves in the shape packaged. The gamma sterilization process uses Cobalt 60 radiation to kill microorganisms on a variety of different products. Sterilization. Curie carried test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket, and stored them in her desk drawer, remarking on the faint light that the substances gave off in the dark room. The Radiation Technology Center (RTC) supports our Customers with radiation test activities such as product trials, dose establishment and dose verification. The gamma irradiation process can effectively treat a wide variety of products composed of different materials, with varying densities, configurations and orientations. Therefore can kill all the bacteria. This is why we speak of ionising radiation. Processing with gamma irradiation yields quick turnaround time, easily penetrating packaging and product, and is ideal for many types of materials. Dr. Mario Finkiel, Ph.D. This allows us to preassembled and package a single use assembly in a clean room environment, sterilize it, and assure the end user that the product they receive is sterile when they take it out of the packaging. Some radiation devices are used to sterilize consumer products. The microwave stream process is performed on the tools and the heat is used to kill the organisms. This, of course, has a price tag, a very high one, well over $1 million! Let’s dive a little deeper in an attempt to explain how gamma ray radiation is produced. Cobalt-60 can be produced in a nuclear power reactor by the irradiation of 59Co (metal), with fast neutrons.Â, The radioactive isotope is formed by neutron capture as shown in the following equation: *Elastomers: 1) Radiation tolerance is affected by the base polymer and the curing system used. Gamma irradiation is the most popular form of radiation sterilisation and is used when materials are sensitive to the high temperature of autoclaving but compatible with ionising radiation. During irradiation, this energy is transferred to the electrons of the molecules of the products and in the process generates highly reactive radicals. 877.783.7479, Certifications | Privacy | Contact Us | Investor Relations | Careers | steris.com, Radiation Sterilization Validation Services, Method Development and Validation Services, Sterile Barrier Integrity and Seal Strength, Radiation Request Form Submittal Guidelines, STERIS Announces New Ethylene Oxide and X-ray Processing Facilities in Europe, STERIS Expands Radiation Technology Center in Libertyville, Illinois to Include Electron Beam Testing, STERIS AST Offers Medical Device Product Testing Capabilities to Support Our Global ExpansionsÂ. Gamma Rays in Sterilisation. Photons do not have mass or a charge. 2) All elastomers are subject to cross-linking. It is an effective sterilization method due to its: Sterility Assurance & Treatment Efficacy Consistently meets product and regulatory requirements; Safety Offers proven track record in worker and product safety; Flexibility & … 27Co59+ n→ 27Co60, Cobalt-60 is manufactured specifically for the irradiation process and is housed in specially designed chambers operating under strict standards and regulations. The word radiation and radioactive are often associated with the horrors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and therefore have earned a negative reputation. Sterilization by Gamma Irradiation, Gamma Radiation, Feriz Adrovic, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/34901. 4. When in Latin America, Mario lectures about sterilization and infection control in Universities, Congresses and different events. You can also use this method at home for things like baby bottles. Gamma sterilization is supported by the internationally recognized consensus standard, ISO 11137, which describes the approach to validating a dose to achieve a defined sterility assurance level (SAL). Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves (such as light, infra-red or UV rays). Food sterilization by gamma irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation to destroy microorganisms, namely bacteria, or insects that might be present in the food.Â, Using radiation for sterilization is great if you need to sterilize products that are heat and moisture sensitive and cannot be sterilized in an autoclave. We all want to live our lives to the fullest, but when it comes to Cobalt-60, we are very satisfied with a half life. Although gamma radiation is commonly used to sterilize plastics, not all types of plastics can be treated at a sufficient dose to achieve sterilization without degrading the plastic (20). Yet while the dangers of radiation are very real, they are a piece of the big picture of this scientific phenomenon. Gamma irradiation is a physical/chemical means of sterilization, because it kills bacteria by breaking down bacterial DNA, inhibiting bacterial division. Gamma radiation is commonly used for sterilization of disposable medical equipment, such as syringes, needles, cannulas and IV sets, and food. In order to understand gamma ray irradiation, we need to explain what the half-life of a radioactive substance is. gamma rays contributed to the creation of the atomic bombs by using the gamma radiation somehow. The gamma irradiation process uses Cobalt 60 radiation to kill microorganisms on a variety of different products in a specially designed cell. So if uranium and plutonium are not fit for sterilization, what is? "Severe damage" to DNA is multiple breaks in the long DNA ladder-like structure. Doctors use radioactive sources for sterilisation. accelerated electrons).The major target for these radiation is microbial DNA. International Marketing Manager ServiceElectron BeamEthylene OxideGammaTesting & ValidationVaporized Hydrogen Peroxide. The primary advantage of gamma is that the material can be placed in its final container and penetrated by radiation. Gamma radiation can be emitted by radioisotopes; atoms with an unstable nucleus undergoing the process of radioactive decay. This will reduce the microbial load on the medical device to the desired Sterility Assurance Level (SAL). A. Sterilization, the killing of bacteria (or any types of cells), on medical instruments is primarily achieved by the radiation causing severe damage to the cell's components and to the cell's chromosomes, specifically the DNA. EO EO is a gaseous sterilant and requires special expensive permeable packaging to allow the gas to enter the package and sterilize the product. To determine its efficacy for this application, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers used UV radiation to disinfect surgical tools (i.e., forceps, needle holder, stab scalpel, and suture) exposed to 5960 Heisley Road | Mentor, OH 44060 USA These devices emit very high amounts of radiation and require significant shielding. Food such as vegetables and fresh fruit can be made safe to eat without heating them. A PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show this activity. How are Surgical Instruments and Food Sterilised? Our Radiation TechTeam® guides Customers through the irradiation validation process, provides solutions for unique project needs, and supports routine processing through quarterly dose audits. Delivery and absorption of dose by product is determined by product density, packaging size, dose rate, exposure time and facility design. Gamma sterilization is used to sterilize human tissue grafts: connective tissue allograft, such as bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, dura mater, skin, heart valves and corneas, which are widely used for reconstructive surgery in many clinical disciplines, including orthopedics, traumatology, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, laryngology, and ophthalmology.Â, Sterilization by radiation is also used for sterilization of plastic syringes, hypodermic needles, scalpels, surgical blades, adhesive dressings and thermolabile medicaments.Â, Other applications include: syringes, surgical gloves, gowns, masks, sticking plasters, dressings, ‘tetrapacks,’ bottle teats for premature babies, food packaging, raw materials for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and even wine corks.Â, Another common application of sterilization by Gamma irradiation is food. Energy of gamma rays passes through hive equipment, disrupting the pathogens that cause contamination. 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