The war for Independence 1810-1821. The current president is Andrés Manuel López Obrador. The consequences of years of instability, war and oppression became visible in all corners of the new nation. Mexico has surpassed Iraq and Afghanistan to become the world’s second-most deadly conflict zone after Syria, according to a study of wars around the globe. Independence in Mexico was sparked by Father Miguel Hidalgo, a priest living and working in the small town of Dolores. Study.com. A) The United States government did not want to offend Mexico. He and a small group of conspirators started the rebellion by ringing the church bells on the morning of September 16, 1810. Thanks you so much! Iturbide ruled for less than one year. Many Mexicans … That'd be my fifth video about the US already, and I'm in no way going to stop any time soon! An exception was president Lázaro Cárdenas. Another uprising was in 1994 when Zapatistas rebelled in the province Chiapas. 2. The first leader of independent Mexico was Agustin de Iturbide. This was supported mainly by Church officials whose powers and wealth were threatened by the reforms that were being carried out in Spain and that saw as only exit the maintenance of its local power. Mexico has two large peninsulas. Spanish economic policies kept most Mexicans poor. San Luis Potosí Heavy rainfall in the last few months has made the Rio Grande river, one of the crossing points, much faster and deeper There are only a few hours left. C had a larger population than Spain and Mexico. The zones that today comprise Mexico, Central America and a portion of the United States fell into the hands of the Spanish in August 1521 when Hernán Cortés and his army of Conquerors Overthrew the Aztec empire. Canada became independent of the United Kingdom, ... in Mexico and 61 percent in Brazil whose Roman Catholic population of 134 million is the greatest of any nation's; approximately 24 percent of the United States' population and about 39 percent of Canada's. When Álvaro Obregón became president in 1920 the fighting calmed down. Alternative Title: Plan de Iguala Iguala Plan, Spanish Plan de Iguala, (Feb. 24, 1821), appeal issued by Agustín de Iturbide, a creole landowner and a former officer in the Spanish army who had assumed leadership of the Mexican independence movement in 1820. 1836 . The American independence movement had inspired Mexican leaders of that era and since Mexico, in fact, also was a territory composed of states, the name stuck and became … Aguascalientes When texas first became independent of mexico, it was its own country. Texas together with Mexico gained their independence from Spain after the signing of the Cordoba treaty on August 24, 1821. A man who was very important in Mexico in the early 19th century was Antonio López de Santa Anna. Between 1846 and 1848 there was war between Mexico and the United States. Liberation. A soldier & diplomat that fought for Mexico's Independence from Spain. a tariff on foreign goods . 26. Alliance. An agreement among countries to work together. History.com. Mexico The new viceroy, Francisco Javier Venegas , with him General Félix María Calleja They succeeded in having the armies of Hidalgo withdraw. The event is now known as the Conspiracy of Martin Cortés and showed an incipient disagreement before some of the Spanish laws. Coahuila In contrast to England, however, Spain accepted Mexico's independence peacefully and a new Mexican monarchy was established. The liberal Benito Juárez won the war and became president afterwards. Mexico mala18 mala18 08/23/2020 History College Which American nation became independent without war? Explanation: After the war, Cuba became a US protectorate and was granted independence in 1902. Quintana Roo, 23. Get an answer for 'Why did the United States avoid immediate annexation of Texas after it became independent from Mexico?' 8. He was the president of Mexico 11 times. [Online] [Quote on: February 25, 2017.] Also known as the Plan, Army or Government of The Three Guarantees , It provided protection of the Catholic faith and rights and property to the clergy. 32. In the north of Mexico are deserts. a new territory for the United States. Also, How did Mexico try and attract settlers? In 1821 the Spanish finally retreated and Mexico became independent. Because of Mexico's close proximity to the United States, ideas of independence could easily flow between the two countries. Between the years of 1821 to 1851, the country had more than 20 governors. However, these two countries have never been the best neighbors and have had problems since the very beginning. historynet.com. Similarly, the governor of Coahuila, Manuel Antonio Cordero and Bustamante , Suffered the desertion of 700 troops in January 1811 when he confronted an army of rebels of about 8000 individuals. Some of the causes of such instability in the new Spain were the economic problems of the Spanish crown, the innumerable prohibitions, the estancos and latifundios, the tributary system, the wealth of the clergy and the dispossession of the indigenous land. On November 6 of that year, the first official document of Mexican independence known as the Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of North America was written. Explanation: After the war, Cuba became a US protectorate and was granted independence in 1902. He thought that European powers might try to colonize new Latin American countries. 20. Teotihuacan was a very large city, one of the largest at that time. This one was called thus by the town in which the meeting was given and in him described reforms led to create a constitutional monarchy with the Bourbons like those with right to the throne, but with limited power. Mexico became independent from Spain. Oaxaca What was the the important event that took place in September 1821? The new society had been established on uneven bases. Some rivers in Mexico are the Río Bravo (known in the US as the Rio Grande), the Río Balsas, the Río Pánuco, and the Río Yaqui. When Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821, it was first established as an empire, ruled by emperor Agustin I. Blacks represented slavery and were forced to work in extreme ways. Add your answer and earn points. It seems that the geographical proximity of Mexico to the United States and the halls played a key role in provoking the revolution. [Online] [Quote On: February 25, 2017.] There was a proposal for this in 1848, the All Mexico movement, a plan to take all of Mexico and its people. Mexico is between two large seas: the Pacific Ocean in the West and the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea in the East. Under the orders of Viceroy Venegas, General Joaquín de Arredondo carried out the invasion of Nuevo Santander in February 1811. Tigro, Erin. Cortes allied himself with the enemies of the Aztecs. He saw his first years led by Agustín de Iturbide who, despite having openly supported Independence, shortly after plotted and achieved his appointment as emperor. In January 1811, Calleja achieved a victory over Hidalgo on the outskirts of Guadalajara and forced the rebels to take refuge in the north. 19. 21. Chiapas The people who were born in Spain of Spanish parents, were those who had power and money. Long live America for which we are going to fight !". Agustín de Iturbide was the first Emperor of independent Mexico. countrystudies.us. Texas A & M University. true false? The Mexican American War (1846-1848) 1821 Mexico became independent o Southwest became part of Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) Mexican Cession: Mexico cedes Texas, California and New Mexico U.S. land covering Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada and parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming 7/12-8/15 how many African Americans were killed How long did the Civil War Last? Zacatecas In August of 1813, Arredondo defeated to the rebels in the battle of Medina thus securing the territory of Texas for the Spanish crown. Veracruz 11. When Mexico became independent from Spain (Sept 27, 1821). The early decades of the 1800s were a tumultuous time for anyone living in Latin America. Sinaloa Meanwhile, the United States was looking to expand its own territory and become more powerful. It follows from the day of the Cry of Dolores (El Grito de Dolores), on September 15. My friends and compatriots: neither the king nor the tributes exist any longer: we have endured this shameful tax, which only fits the slaves, for three centuries as a sign of tyranny and servitude, a terrible stain. In 1821, Mexico defeated the Spanish and gained full independence. It was called New Spain. 60% of Mexicans have Native American and European forefathers; these are called mestizos. Most Mexican people speak Spanish. asked Sep 4, 2016 in History by Felsenfest. The Criollos owned much of the land and political power. In early 1821, Agustín de Iturbide, the leader of the Royalist forces, negotiated the Plan of Iguala with Vicente Guerrero. In the years leading up to the independence war, most of the plans to end Spanish control were created by children born to Spaniards born in the New World or Creoles. Viceroy Apodaca was offered the position of President of the board for the implementation of the new government, but he declared against it and resigned. Before Mexico became independent from Spain, part of Texas most likely A was called Tejas and belonged to Spain. 22. independent from Mexico. Feb 5, 1810. Vermont Republic 1777–1791 Republic of Texas 1836–46 Kingdom of Hawaii 1795–1893 then Republic to 1898 California Republic despite appearing on the state flag was kind of a joke, being 100 or so guys in a fort for 25 days. The Republic was known by the United States as “the New Hampshire Grants” and was not recognized by the Continental Congress. The period in which Mexico became independent lasted 11 years (from 1810-1821), it consisted of several phases, and it was led by men of diverse ideologies. In 1929 President Plutarco Elías Calles founded the National Mexican Party, PNM. In 1521 they conquered the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. 25. These were considered socially lower than the native Europeans in the stratified system of caste that was imposed at the time. Conservatives thought Juarez had too much power. However, the objective of this group excluded Mexican natives and mestizos, who lacked even the most basic political and civil rights. Tamaulipas In case of being rejected it would proceed to appoint an emperor of the territory. [Quoted on: February 20, 2017.] A. ————————– The first date we have to set down on the path of Canadian independence is 1840. The first leader of independent Mexico was Agustin de Iturbide. Querétaro The next 10 years the country was in chaos. Baja California in the northwest, and Yucatán in the southeast. ColombiaC. Under the plan, Mexico would be established as an independent constitutional monarchy, the privileged position of the Catholic Church would be maintained, and Mexicans of … 14. When he became a dictator, Texas declared independence (1836). At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the occupation of Spain by Napoleon led to the outbreak of revolts throughout Spanish America. Countrystudies.us. 2. A. 10. ¹ Member of the community but not the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy. 29. Michoacan Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Among the conspiratorial groups was the parish of Dolores east of Guanajuato. Mexico getting independent Independence of Mexico was sparked by a priest named Miguel Hidalgo. On November 27 of that year he was brought before an inquisitorial tribunal that declared him a heretic. in California? The capital of Mexico is Mexico City. In Nuevo Santander, the armies mutinied against the governor when they were ordered to march to San Luis de Postosí to fight the insurgents. In Texas, Governor Manuel Salcedo was overthrown on January 22, 1811 by Juan Bautista de las Casas along with troops who were quartered in San Antonio. Which country became independent in 1930 (a) france (b) italy (c) mexico (d) russia 1 See answer mehnazsiddique24 is waiting for your help. Mexican War of Independence: Father Miguel Hidalgo's Revolt. In central Mexico there are also a few volcanoes like the Popocatépetl and the Iztaccíhuatl. 15. CanadaD. In this war Mexico lost its large northern areas, which became the southwestern United States. Mexico declared independence on September 16th, 1810, and after a war with Spain, were recognized as an independent nation in 1821. These thoughts were driven by revolutions in the United States in 1776, in France in 1789, and in Haiti in 1804. Mexico declared its independence form Spain at the last hours of September 15, 1810. This was the passage of the Union Act which combined the former colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. the twenty-eighth state of the United States. Took the test and it … The coup leaders, part of an expeditionary force assembled to suppress the independence movements in the Americas, had turned against the autocratic monarchy. Sonora Is Independence Day a Public Holiday? Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. Under the plan, Mexico would be established as an independent constitutional monarchy, the privileged position of the Catholic Church would be maintained, and Mexicans of Spanish descent would be regarded as equals to pure Spaniards. Hidalgo made it clear that Mexico was going to become independent, and that he was calling for a war against the Spanish. history.com. I might be having to short answer these questions on my history final and these are the only two I don't have! What was the primary goal of Henry Clay's American System? The president is elected every 6 years. Motivated by events in Spain that forced King Fernando VII to restore elements of a constitutional government, the former commander of the crown Agustín Iturbide Proceeded to the formation of a meeting with the revolutionary Vicente Guerrero To plan the independence of Mexico in 1821. Parliament has a Senate and House of Deputies. Before the Europeans came, many Native American cultures existed in Mexico. The Aztecs thought he was the returned Quetzalcoatl, so they did not want to fight against him. Before you see me at the head of men who pride themselves on being free, I invite you to fulfill this obligation, and without homeland or freedom we will always be a long way from true happiness. Mainly through ballot box fraud the PRI managed to stay into power until 2000, when Vicente Fox of the National Action Party, PAN, was elected president. Ch.7 Mexico Becomes Independent. Bustamante was succeeded in February 1967 by Donald Sangster, who died … 3. The Mayans lived in city states ruled by kings. In 1813, Morelos convenes the Congress of Chilpancingo in an effort to bring together representatives of different groups. Many independent and diverse guerrilla forces in motives and loyalties continued to exist throughout all provinces including Texas. 5. The next Viceroy, Juan Ruiz de Apodaca , Took a more conciliatory position and offered amnesty to the rebels to lay down their arms and this proved to be a more forceful tool than the repression imparted by Calleja. [Online] [Quoted on: February 25, 2017.] Colima There are also Mexicans who speak Native American languages, like Nahuatl, Mayan, and Zapotec. Independence Day (Día de la Independencia) is a Mexican holiday to celebrate the “cry of independence” on September 16, 1810, which started a revolt against the Spaniards. A board appointed Iturbide as Admiral and Grand General. Just so, when did Texas become independent from Mexico? It is an annual legal holiday in Texas, in the United States, on March 2. We use cookies to provide our online service. Joined with Augustus Magee (Gutierrez-Magee Expedition), their army (Republican Army of the North) defeated the Spanish Army in several battles. Independence in Mexico . Which American nation became independent without war? The most immediate cause of the Texas Revolution was the refusal of many Texas, both Anglo and Mexican, to accept the governmental changes mandated by "Siete Leyes" which placed almost total power in the hands of the Mexican national government and Santa Anna. The Spanish called Mexico “New Spain” and Mexico City was its capital, seamlessly adapting to the name when they declared the capital La Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico City) in 1585. Nayarit Mexico became an independent nation in 1821. true President John Tyler asked Congress to annex Texas through a joint resolution, which only needed a simple majority in each house, as opposed to the two-thirds majority needed in the Senate to pass such a treaty. Most PRI presidents were not popular, it was said that they were only president to become richer themselves. After the execution of Hidalgo and Allende, José María Morelos y Pavón Assumed the leadership of the independence cause. 0 0. At that time the local Mexicans revolted against Spanish rule. Juarez stayed president until France invaded Mexico and made Maximilian of Habsburg emperor of the Second Mexican Empire. Famous people from this period are Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa and Francisco I. Madero. STRUGGLE FOR MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE. On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Priest Miguel Hidalgo in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato state. The Battle of the Alamo was part of this Texas Revolution. General Antonio López de Santa Anna During General Santa Anna's time as President, war broke out with Mexico's neighbour to the north, the United States. With these developments, Texas became part of an independent Mexico and the "Lone Star" of hope for a second democratic, multi-cultural Federal Republic in America.. Diez y seis de Septiembre (16 September)--Texans, may we always revere and celebrate this milestone of our liberty and independence- … This was the catalyst for a long war that eventually led to recognized independence in 1821 and the creation of an ephemeral First Mexican Empire. [11] Other ethnic groups in Mexico are Arabs, Gypsies, Africans, Jews and Asians. Filibuster. Spain abolished the slave trade. In certain regions, groups loyal to the crown declared Fernando VII, son of Carlos IV, like the new monarch. 9. The party was later renamed Institutional Revolutionary Party, PRI. Franciso I. Madero started the Mexican Revolution in 1910. The Olmecs are famous for the large stone heads they made. Feb 5, 1810. The Mexican Empire, 1821–23 The first Mexican Empire spanned only a short transitional period during which Mexico became an independent republic. [Online] [Quoted on: February 25, 2017.] The Creoles were Many factions, including the oldest and most inactive revolutionaries, Creole landowners and government officials began to join the movement. After more war he was executed in 1867, and Juarez became president again. What year did Mexico become a nation? After this war Santa Anna was sent away to Venezuela. At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle Texas. Porfirio Díaz made the country wealthier, but the poor people became poorer. Mexico is between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Tlaxcala The people of the Vermont Republic contacted the British government about … Bustamante assumed the title of prime minister.The following year Jamaica joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After the Independence, Mexico became the largest country in Spanish America. Mexico City. 1 decade ago. In the south are tropical rainforests. A famous Toltec god is Quetzalcoatl. Mexico declared independence from Spain on September 16, 1810. One of the first revolts against the Spanish government was led by Martin Cortés Malintzin, the illegitimate son of Hernán Cortés and La Malinche, his interpreter and concubine. info)[10]) is a country in North America. The rebellion began when the Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Formally declared the opposition to the bad government the 16 of September of 1810. " Equality was also contemplated between Peninsular and Creole citizens. In 1876 they ousted him, and made Porfirio Díaz, a general who had won a battle against the French, president. When Mexico achieved its independence in 1821 with the Treaty of Córdoba, the Captaincy General of Guatemala that had ruled Central America became politically independent as well, without the necessity of violent struggle. In Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte began the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1808. The cause is holy and God will protect it. The Causes of Mexico's independence Were of diverse types: economic, political and were marked by facts like the conspiracy of Querétaro. He set up the First Mexican Empire and became emperor. The Creoles were Mexico getting independent Independence of Mexico was sparked by a priest named Miguel Hidalgo. In those provinces Hidalgo and the leaders of the insurgency found temporary shelter under groups that also had declared their rebellion. What change to the U.S. economy did Henry Clay make specifically to finance the building of new roads and canals? The chances of that happening today are incredibly remote. But the Mexicans were not happy with him, and in 1823 the country became a republic. Republic. Mexican Independence. In the halls, people began to discuss ideas of independence. Things made by the Toltecs have been found from the southern parts of the U.S. all the way to Costa Rica. Agustín de Iturbide was the first and … 4. PLAY. HistoryNet. The war of Independence of Mexico was an armed conflict that ended with the aim of dominion of the Spanish Empire on the territory of New Spain in 1821. Indians, mestizos and castes, deprived of rights and forced to work hard, had to pay high taxes imposed by the Spanish crown and had very few opportunities. Why was President Monroe concerned when Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821? Mexico was a new country, plunged into poverty and without diplomatic relations. Baja California Causes Of Independence; Conclusion Napoleon's invasion and occupation of Spain from 1808-1813 heightened the revolutionary fever in Mexico and other Spanish colonies. Mexico is south of Texas, California and other American states. In 1519 the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés came to Mexico. Find out when Canada became independent, or if in fact they ever really did, on this episode of Everything Everywhere Daily. Mexico became an independent nation state after the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. But the Mexicans were not happy with him, and in 1823 the country became a republic. Hidalgo Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla "Father of Mexican Independence." The earliest was the Olmec culture in the south. Mexico gained its independence from Spain when Miguel Hidalgo called for a war against the Spaniards; Mexico won the war in 1821. The moment of our freedom has come, the hour of our freedom, and if you recognize its great value, it will help me to defend it from the ambition of the tyrants. Tabasco In total the PRI had governed Mexico for 71 years. Yucatán 30. From here it was the general Manuel Mier and Terán The one that inherited the leadership of the movement after the death of Morelos, but was unable to unify the forces. On the Yucatán peninsula lived the Mayans. Current Territory: The State of Vermont The earliest sovereign state in North America after the Revolution was the Vermont Republic, also known as the Green Mountain Republic or the Republic of New Connecticut. Those … 16. 18. The Aztecs called their own empire Mexico. Guanajuato When French troops entered Madrid, King Charles IV was forced to abdicate and Napoleon named his brother Joseph Bonaparte as the new king. Mexico only became a nation in 1821, after winning independence from Spain. Colombia is the wrong answer. By orders of the Viceroy, Félix María Callejas, Morelos is executed on December 22, 1815. 31. However, it was followed by other peasant leaders, such as José María Morelos y Pavón, Mariano Matamoros and Vicente Guerrero. There was a proposal for this in 1848, the All Mexico movement, a plan to take all of Mexico and its people. When news of the liberal charter reached New Spain, Iturbide perceived it bot… 24. It was the year Mexico became a fully independent nation (from Spain). In History. The Catholic priest had the Spaniards arrested, and he rung his church bell to call people to come to mass. Even though the Republic of Texas became independent from Mexico in 1836, why did it have to wait nearly a decade to be annexed to the United States? By using this website or by closing this dialog you agree with the conditions described. 4. The Aztec Empire became part of Spain. mexicanhistory.org. After several decades more and more people became unhappy with the PRI. Baja California Sur This event resulted in more than 3 centuries of colonial rule that decimated native populations. The war of Independence of Mexico was an armed conflict that ended with the aim of dominion of the Spanish Empire on the territory of New Spain in 1821. STUDY. … These discussions would allow the revolution to take root with thousands of people in the population. The townspeople gathered around the church where the bell had rung and the priest captured their attention. espyj espyj Answer: A. After the death of O'Donoju and the formation of a fractional congress of Crown delegates, Republicans and Imperialists, Iturbide was proclaimed like Emperor of Mexico by the army and the congress was dissolved. Causes Of Independence; Conclusion Napoleon's invasion and occupation of Spain from 1808-1813 heightened the revolutionary fever in Mexico and other Spanish colonies. 13. Texas Independence Day celebrates the adoption of the state’s independence declaration. When did mexico become independent? It is also the second most populous country in Latin America (after Brazil). The classrooms were important because they gave people a place to talk and discuss ideas. A famous Aztec king was Moctezuma II. In 1821 the Spanish finally retreated and Mexico became independent. Mexico became independent in 1821. Mexico became independent in 1821 after a long 11-year war against the Spaniards, and the two became true neighbors. The Conservatives wanted Mexico to become an Empire after independence, and Iturbide was crowned Emperor in 1822. tamu.edu. The party would rule for a very long time. Morelos Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla - the father of Mexican independence - launched the Mexican rebellion with his"cry of Dolores", and his populist army came close to capturing the Mexican capital. In 1521, Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs and Mexico became a Spanish colony. This implied that until 1820, any organized movement for Mexican independence remained quiet except for the action of Javier Mina and others based in Texas. He had fought during the War of Independence, leading Mexicans to victory and independence from Spain. Father Miguel Hidalgo declared Mexico's independence with his famous cry of "Viva Mexico". In the area of ​​Querétaro, a group of non-conformist creoles decides to employ natives and mestizo peasants in order to gain control over the Spaniards. For 300 years Spain ruled the land until the early 1800s. Lv 5. 3. 1. He set up the First Mexican Empire and became emperor. In central and western Mexico are the Sierra Madre mountains. This dissension was the one that allowed the forces of the Viceroy Felix Maria Calleja to conquer sequentially or at least to keep under control the movement that was fragmented. In 1815, Morelos was captured by royal forces at the Battle of Temalaca and taken to Mexico City. 5. On August 6, 1962, Jamaica became independent with full dominion status within the Commonwealth, under a constitution that retained the British monarch as head of state. He was president between 1934 and 1940. The position of Emperor was offered to Fernando VII with the condition that he was the occupant of the throne and supported the idea of ​​a Mexican constitution. How Mexico Became Independent From Spain Timeline created by 4478. Independence Day is a public holiday. The Mayans were most powerful between 200 and 900 A.D. Another powerful empire belonged to Teotihuacan. Rhonnie. In History. To study.com. aryansmhs11 aryansmhs11 Explanation: look budy non of your option is correct please check your question again. Freedom. After this event, a Spanish conductor known as Pedro de Garibay Is placed at the head of the colony against the wishes of the Creoles. Jalisco Campeche United States B. Colombia C. Canada D. Mexico See answer sijnoo sijnoo Answer: Colombia. The Pico de Orizaba is also a volcano. People living in Mexico or who are from there are called Mexicans. [Online] [Quoted on: February 25, 2017.] Chihuahua - 2981460 Instead of a war and supported by other liberal and conservative factions in Mexico, the Plan of Iguala was formulated on February 24, 1821. Between 1858 and 1861 there was war again, between liberals and conservatives. The independent country. Mayor imports- Petroleum oils, refined (6%), Parts and accessories of the motor vehicles (5%), Parts of radios, telephones and TVs (4%), Electronic integrated circuits (3%), Telephones (3%) Mayor Exports- Petroleum oils, crude (12%), Cars (8%), Monitors and projectors; reception Before the war was over and Mexico gained its independence, the Spanish army murdered Hidalgo. European forefathers ; these are special observances rather than legal holidays and gained independence. 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